Plato (c 427-347 BC) was an Athenian philosopher. Plato considered that nature is ruled by fixed and immutable rules and that these laws are rational and ‘good’ because they were created by divine powers, a divine body whose primary concern was that of human affairs. As such, Plato believed that the natural law reflected the ’embodiment of reason’. For Plato, for man to find himself safe he must imitate the natural law through the structure and ordering of the society he lives in, in the obedience to the ‘immortal element within them’.

Plato (left) and Aristotle (Right) by Raphael
Plato (left) and Aristotle (right) by Raphael

Platonism is in many ways the father of totalitarianism, with the proposition of the abolition of private property, suppression of intermediate groups between the individual and the state and the abolition of private property. Everybody lives in ignorance except for the “philosopher king” – Only the best men in society should enjoy personal freedom.